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قديم منذ /01-02-2015, 02:27 AM   #1

 
الصورة الرمزية ♥ Tiffany
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♥ Tiffany غير متواجد حالياً

 

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 مستوى التقييم : ♥ Tiffany is just really nice♥ Tiffany is just really nice♥ Tiffany is just really nice♥ Tiffany is just really nice
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افتراضي || The organisation of the body || شرح الشابتر الاول مع ألانشطه


The organisation of the body

The human body is organised into various levels that begin at the very small and basic and come together to form the complete body whose different parts work in unison. This can be seen as a kind of ‘ladder’ going from the basic to the very complex.
At the simplest level, the body is comprised of atoms.
Atoms to the human body
Activity 1
In this activity you will learn about the organisation of the body.Click here to begin.
Internal cavities

The body has two (2) sets of internal cavities that provide different degrees of protection to the organs that lie within them. These are the:

  • Dorsal cavity that encases the brain and the spine.
  • Ventral cavity which comprises the thorax (chest) – this encases the heart and the lungs and the abdominopelvic cavity which encases our abdominal organs and those of our reproductive system.
Regions

The body is also divided into regions. Examples of these include the:
  • Epigastric region — which lies below the bottom of the breastbone and above the umbilicus (belly button).
  • Inguinal region — which lies within the groin.
  • The cervical region — which lies at the back of the neck.
  • The gluteal region — which lies in the area of the buttocks.
Cells, tissues, organs and systems

The cell

The basic unit of body structure is the cell. All cells need food, water, and oxygen to live and function. As cells use or metabolise food and oxygen they give off carbon dioxide and other wastes. The cell is comprised of the cell membrane, which is the outer covering; it encloses the cell and helps it hold its shape.
The nucleus is the control centre; it directs the cell’s activities. Cytoplasm surrounds the nucleus. Organelles are structures that are suspended in the cytoplasm. The protoplasm refers to all structures, substances and water within the cell.
Chromosomes are threadlike structures within the nucleus. Each cell has 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes contain genes, which determine our physical and chemical makeup. (Sorrentino, 1997)
To review some the most common parts of the cell, click here and then roll you mouse over the image
Cell qualities

  • The cell is the most basic unit of life.
  • There are cells that are organisms themselves, such as bacteria cells.
  • There are cells that only function when part of a larger organism.
  • In the body, there are brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, blood cells and many more.
  • All of these cells have unique functions and features.
Although cells may be very different and highly specialised, they all have the same basic structure. They all have:
  • an outer covering called the membrane
  • a main substance called the cytoplasm
  • a control centre known as the nucleus
  • organelles dispersed within their cytoplasm.
The cell membrane protects the cell and regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell.
The nucleus is the control centre of the cell. DNA, which makes up the genes, is found within the chromatin granules and within the nucleolus is the RNA.
Organelles, which are structures found in the cytoplasm, are the:
  • mitochondria, the “powerhouse” of the cell, function in cellular metabolism and respiration
  • endoplasmic reticulum produces proteins and lipids and transports these substances within the cell
  • lysosomes function in intracellular digestion and form the “self-destruct” system of the cell
  • golgi complex concentrates some secretions, adds carbohydrates to some secretions and packages secretions for export from the cell
  • vacuoles are small cavities within the cell used to store secretions or waste products
  • centrioles, cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules
    • centrioles are contained in the centrosome and are involved in mitosis (cell division)
    • cilia aid in the movement of materials outside the cell. For example, trapping of dust particles in the respiratory tract.
    • flagella are important in the locomotion of sperm cells.
Functions of the cell

  • Respiration — all cells require oxygen to metabolise food.
  • Ingestion and assimilation — cells are able to select chemicals from the surrounding fluid for their structure.
  • Growth and repair — cells can synthesise new cytoplasm so that growth can occur and repair worn out parts.
  • Excretion — waste products are eliminated into surrounding tissue to be transported by the blood for elimination via organs.
  • Irritability and activity — cells are able to respond to stimuli. For example a stimulus causes a muscle to contract or relax.
  • Metabolism — cells are able to break down and use substances from food as fuel.
  • Reproduction — cells reproduce by simple division but some cells can never be replaced once destroyed. For example, central nervous system cells.
Activity 2
In this activity you will learn about the structure and function of cells. Click here
Tissues

Groups of cells form tissues and there are four main types. The structure of tissues reflects their function.
TypesFunctionExampleEpithelial
Protection
Skin
Connective
Support
Bones
Muscular
Movement
Skeletal
Nervous
Communication
Brain

Epithelial tissue

This tissue covers the body surfaces and lines its cavities. Some specialise to form glands.
The functions of epithelial tissue include:
  • protection
  • absorption
  • secretion
  • excretion
  • surface transport
  • reception of sensory information.
A gland is one or more epithelial cells specialised to produce and discharge substances.
Endocrine glands secrete have no ducts and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, for example pituitary gland.
Exocrine glands release their secretions through ducts, for example salivary and sweat glands.
Connective tissue

This tissue joins other tissues of the body together, supports the body and protects underlying organs.
Some main types are:
  • ordinary connective tissue - subcutaneous tissue and collagen
  • adipose tissue - stores fat
  • cartilage - protects joints and supports soft tissues
  • bone - rigid supporting tissue of the skeleton
  • blood - lymph and lymphoid tissue - produce blood cells
Muscular tissue

Muscle is composed of cells specialised to contract.
Skeletal muscle is striated (striped) and is under voluntary control.
Cardiac muscle is present only in the walls of the heart, is striated and is controlled by involuntary nerve messages from the brain.
Smooth muscle, also involuntary, is responsible for movement of food through the digestive tract, and changing the diameter of blood vessels.
Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue forms the brain, spinal cord and the nerves. The basic cell is called the neuron.
Specialised to receive stimuli and send impulses from one part of the body to another.
Organs

Groups of tissues come together to form organs. For example the heart is made up of cardiac muscle and nervous tissues, held together with connective tissues and lined with epithelium. Each organ has a specific function.
OrganFunctionHeart
Circulation
Stomach
Digestion
Brain
Communication/coordination
Uterus
Reproduction
Systems

Several organs working together form a system. For example the urinary system is made up of the kidneys, bladder and ureters.
SystemOrgansCardiovascular
Heart, blood, vessels
Respiratory
Nose, pharynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, lungs, alveoli
Musculoskeletal
Muscles, joints, bones
Integumentary
Skin
Nervous
Brain, spinal chord, nerves
Digestive
Tongue, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
Urinary
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Reproductive
Male: Testes, scrotum, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate, ejaculatory duct, urethra, penis, glans, perineum
Female: Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, labia, urethra, clitoris, perineum
Endocrine
Glands: pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, parathyroid, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, gonads: ovaries ♀; testes ♂, and their hormones.
Lymphatic/Immune
Lymph glands and vessels, lymph, lymphocytes, T and B cells.
Activity 3
In this activity you will learn the functions of the different body systems. Click here







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الأعضاء الذين قالوا شكراً لـ ♥ Tiffany على المشاركة المفيدة:

قديم منذ /03-09-2015, 07:12 PM   #2

طالب نشيط

آمان غير متواجد حالياً

 

مواضيعي | ردودي

 رقم العضوية : 10088
 تاريخ الإنتساب : Jul 2014
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 مستوى التقييم : آمان is on a distinguished road
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تم شكره 6 مرة في 2 مشاركة
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